Thursday, September 29, 2016

Short Review of Jonathan Edwards: A New Biography by Iain H. Murray

I bought the book Jonathan Edwards: A New Biography by Iain H. Murray for a family member.  Initially she told me she liked it but as she read, she got frustrated.  She actually gave up on it and gave it to me.  I just finished reading it myself.  It took a while.  The book lacks direction is one of its main faults.  Rather than guiding and interpreting the life of Jonathan Edwards, it seems like the author accumulates many facts.  Murray seems to go into depth on issues which for me which would have served the average reader better by summarizing the issue or by excising the material altogether.  This book best serves someone with a strong interest in history and lover of detail.  If you desire to learn a bit of church history, historical theology, or be inspired by a great Christian man, you should look for another biography.

Wednesday, September 07, 2016

Translation and Notes on Job 1

I took Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Greek in seminary.  I am maintaining my Hebrew and Greek by continuing to use those skills.  I translate my preaching passages.  I use Bible Works which I highly recommend.  It is my favorite Bible software since as they advertise, focus on the text.  Sometimes I'm being overly literal, so the English is poor, but it helps to figure out how Hebrew is different that English.  They just do things differently with language sometimes.  

 אִ֛ישׁ הָיָ֥ה בְאֶֽרֶץ־ע֖וּץ אִיּ֣וֹב שְׁמ֑וֹ וְהָיָ֣ה׀ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֗וּא תָּ֧ם וְיָשָׁ֛ר וִירֵ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְסָ֥ר מֵרָֽע׃
 (Job 1:1 WTT)

There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job and he was a man who was whole and straight and feared God and turned from evil. 

Notes:  The location is east of Israel. 

 וַיִּוָּ֥לְדוּ ל֛וֹ שִׁבְעָ֥ה בָנִ֖ים וְשָׁל֥וֹשׁ בָּנֽוֹת׃
 (Job 1:2 WTT)

And there was born to him seven sons and three daughters.

WTT Job 1:3  וַיְהִ֣י מִ֠קְנֵהוּ שִֽׁבְעַ֙ת אַלְפֵי־צֹ֜אן וּשְׁלֹ֧שֶׁת אַלְפֵ֣י גְמַלִּ֗ים וַחֲמֵ֙שׁ מֵא֤וֹת צֶֽמֶד־בָּקָר֙ וַחֲמֵ֣שׁ מֵא֣וֹת אֲתוֹנ֔וֹת וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד וַיְהִי֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא גָּד֖וֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶֽדֶם׃
 (Job 1:3 WTT)

And he had livestock of 7,000 head of cattle and 3,000 camels and 500 pair of oxen and 500 female donkeys and a great many servants and the man was greater than all the sons of old. 

WTT Job 1:4  וְהָלְכ֤וּ בָנָיו֙ וְעָשׂ֣וּ מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה בֵּ֖ית אִ֣ישׁ יוֹמ֑וֹ וְשָׁלְח֗וּ וְקָרְאוּ֙ לִשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת (אַחְיֹתֵיהֶם) [אַחְיֽוֹתֵיהֶ֔ם] לֶאֱכֹ֥ל וְלִשְׁתּ֖וֹת עִמָּהֶֽם׃
 (Job 1:4 WTT)

And then his sons would go and make a feast each in the man’s house on his day and go and call their three sisters in order eat and drink together. 

וַיְהִ֡י כִּ֣י הִקִּיפֽוּ֩ יְמֵ֙י הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֜ה וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח אִיּ֣וֹב וַֽיְקַדְּשֵׁ֗ם וְהִשְׁכִּ֣ים בַּבֹּקֶר֘ וְהֶעֱלָ֣ה עֹלוֹת֘ מִסְפַּ֣ר כֻּלָּם֒ כִּ֚י אָמַ֣ר אִיּ֔וֹב אוּלַי֙ חָטְא֣וּ בָנַ֔י וּבֵרֲכ֥וּ אֱלֹהִ֖ים בִּלְבָבָ֑ם כָּ֛כָה יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אִיּ֖וֹב כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃ פ
 (Job 1:5 WTT)

And thus when the cycle of the feast days was complete, Job made arrangements and consecrate and rise up early in the morning because he said, “Perhaps my children have cursed God in their hearts”.  And thus Job did all the days. 
 ‎ וַיְהִ֣י הַיּ֔וֹם וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים לְהִתְיַצֵּ֖ב עַל־יְהוָ֑ה וַיָּב֥וֹא גַֽם־הַשָּׂטָ֖ן בְּתוֹכָֽם׃
  
 (Job 1:6 WTT)

And it came to pass that one day that the sons of God came to stand to present themselves before God and there came the Satan in the midst of them. 

Notes:  Satan is among the other heavenly beings just as Judas is among the disciples.  Satan is not in hell running terrible spa.  Proverbs 22:29 talks about presenting one’s self before a king or before low men. 

וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָ֖ן מֵאַ֣יִן תָּבֹ֑א וַיַּ֙עַן הַשָּׂטָ֤ן אֶת־יְהוָה֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר מִשּׁ֣וּט בָּאָ֔רֶץ וּמֵֽהִתְהַלֵּ֖ךְ בָּֽהּ׃
 (Job 1:7 WTT)

And the Lord said to Satan, “Whence did you go?”  And Satan answered the Lord and said, “I have been wondering on the earth going to and fro on it. 

וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־הַשָּׂטָ֔ן הֲשַׂ֥מְתָּ לִבְּךָ֖ עַל־עַבְדִּ֣י אִיּ֑וֹב כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין כָּמֹ֙הוּ֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ אִ֣ישׁ תָּ֧ם וְיָשָׁ֛ר יְרֵ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְסָ֥ר מֵרָֽע׃
 (Job 1:8 WTT)

And the Lord said to Satan, “Have you put your heart on my servant Job?  For where is anyone like him on the earth a man complete and straight and fearing God and turns from evil?” 

 וַיַּ֧עַן הַשָּׂטָ֛ן אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה וַיֹּאמַ֑ר הַֽחִנָּ֔ם יָרֵ֥א אִיּ֖וֹב אֱלֹהִֽים׃  (Job 1:9 WTT)

And Satan answered Yahweh and said, “Is it not out of favor that Job fears God?” 

 הֲלֹֽא־(אַתְּ) [֠אַתָּה] שַׂ֣כְתָּ בַעֲד֧וֹ וּבְעַד־בֵּית֛וֹ וּבְעַ֥ד כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ מִסָּבִ֑יב מַעֲשֵׂ֤ה יָדָיו֙ בֵּרַ֔כְתָּ וּמִקְנֵ֖הוּ פָּרַ֥ץ בָּאָֽרֶץ׃(Job 1:10 WTT)

Have not you not put a fence around him and his house and all that belongs to him on every side? The things made by his hand you bless and his herds break forth on the land. 

וְאוּלָם֙ שְֽׁלַֽח־נָ֣א יָֽדְךָ֔ וְגַ֖ע בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ אִם־לֹ֥א עַל־פָּנֶ֖יךָ יְבָרֲכֶֽךָּ׃
   (Job 1:11 WTT)
But strike, I pray, your hand on all which belongs to him and will he not curse you to your face? 

 וַיֹּ֙אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָ֗ן הִנֵּ֤ה כָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֙ בְּיָדֶ֔ךָ רַ֣ק אֵלָ֔יו אַל־תִּשְׁלַ֖ח יָדֶ֑ךָ וַיֵּצֵא֙ הַשָּׂטָ֔ן מֵעִ֖ם פְּנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃
 (Job 1:12 WTT)

And then Yahweh said to Satan, “Behold, everything which belongs to him is in your hand, but surely on him do not send your hand.” And then Satan went from before the face of Yahweh.

וַיְהִ֖י הַיּ֑וֹם וּבָנָ֙יו וּבְנֹתָ֤יו אֹֽכְלִים֙ וְשֹׁתִ֣ים יַ֔יִן בְּבֵ֖ית אֲחִיהֶ֥ם הַבְּכֽוֹר׃
   (Job 1:13 WTT)

And one day his sons and daughters were eating and drinking win in the house of their first-born brother. 

וּמַלְאָ֛ךְ בָּ֥א אֶל־אִיּ֖וֹב וַיֹּאמַ֑ר הַבָּקָר֙ הָי֣וּ חֹֽרְשׁ֔וֹת וְהָאֲתֹנ֖וֹת רֹע֥וֹת עַל־יְדֵיהֶֽם׃
  
 (Job 1:14 WTT)
And a messenger came to Job and said, “The oxen were ploughing and the donkeys were pasturing near them. 

וַתִּפֹּ֤ל שְׁבָא֙ וַתִּקָּחֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִ֖ים הִכּ֣וּ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב וָֽאִמָּ֙לְטָ֧ה רַק־אֲנִ֛י לְבַדִּ֖י לְהַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ׃
 (Job 1:15 WTT)

And the Sabeans came and took them and the young lads they smote with the mouth of the sword and I alone escaped for the purpose of declaring to you these words.”

 ע֣וֹד׀ זֶ֣ה מְדַבֵּ֗ר וְזֶה֘ בָּ֣א וַיֹּאמַר֒ אֵ֣שׁ אֱלֹהִ֗ים נָֽפְלָה֙ מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַתִּבְעַ֥ר בַּצֹּ֛אן וּבַנְּעָרִ֖ים וַתֹּאכְלֵ֑ם וָאִמָּ֙לְטָ֧ה רַק־אֲנִ֛י לְבַדִּ֖י לְהַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ׃
 (Job 1:16 WTT)

While that one was still speaking then another came and said, “Fire of God fell from the heavens and burned the sheep and the young men and consumed them and I myself alone escaped for the purpose of declaring to you these words.” 

 ע֣וֹד׀ זֶ֣ה מְדַבֵּ֗ר וְזֶה֘ בָּ֣א וַיֹּאמַר֒ כַּשְׂדִּ֞ים שָׂ֣מוּ׀ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה רָאשִׁ֗ים וַֽיִּפְשְׁט֤וּ עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים֙ וַיִּקָּח֔וּם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִ֖ים הִכּ֣וּ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב וָאִמָּ֙לְטָ֧ה רַק־אֲנִ֛י לְבַדִּ֖י לְהַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ׃
 (Job 1:17 WTT)

Still while this other one was speaking another came and said, “Chaldeans placed three raiding parties and raided the camels and taking them and the young men they slew with the mouth of the sword and I myself alone escaped for the purpose of declaring to you these words.”

עַ֚ד זֶ֣ה מְדַבֵּ֔ר וְזֶ֖ה בָּ֣א וַיֹּאמַ֑ר בָּנֶ֙יךָ וּבְנוֹתֶ֤יךָ אֹֽכְלִים֙ וְשֹׁתִ֣ים יַ֔יִן בְּבֵ֖ית אֲחִיהֶ֥ם הַבְּכֽוֹר׃
  
 (Job 1:18 WTT)

And still again while that one was speaking another came and said, “Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine and in the house of their first-born brother.

 וְהִנֵּה֩ ר֙וּחַ גְּדוֹלָ֜ה בָּ֣אָה׀ מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַמִּדְבָּ֗ר וַיִּגַּע֙ בְּאַרְבַּע֙ פִּנּ֣וֹת הַבַּ֔יִת וַיִּפֹּ֥ל עַל־הַנְּעָרִ֖ים וַיָּמ֑וּתוּ וָאִמָּ֙לְטָ֧ה רַק־אֲנִ֛י לְבַדִּ֖י לְהַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ׃
 (Job 1:19 WTT)
And behold a great wind came across the wildness and struck the four corners of the house and it fell on the young ones and they are dead and I myself alone escaped for the purpose of declaring to you these words.”
 וַיָּ֤קָם אִיּוֹב֙ וַיִּקְרַ֣ע אֶת־מְעִל֔וֹ וַיָּ֖גָז אֶת־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיִּפֹּ֥ל אַ֖רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּֽחוּ׃
 (Job 1:20 WTT)
And then Job arose then he tore his robe and shaved his head and fell to the ground and worshipped. 

 וַיֹּאמֶר֩ עָרֹ֙ם (יָצָתִי) [יָצָ֜אתִי] מִבֶּ֣טֶן אִמִּ֗י וְעָרֹם֙ אָשׁ֣וּב שָׁ֔מָה יְהוָ֣ה נָתַ֔ן וַיהוָ֖ה לָקָ֑ח יְהִ֛י שֵׁ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה מְבֹרָֽךְ׃
 (Job 1:21 WTT)
And he said, “Naked I came out of my mother’s stomach and naked I shall return.  Yahweh gives and Yahweh takes away.  Blessed be the name of Yahweh!”

Notes:  The idea that we come into this world naked is literal, but when we go to the grave we are clothed.  So does he mean that we are as if we are without clothes in the grave? Or that separating from the body is like disrobing?  Does it mean that we carry nothing with us into the afterlife?  Many people and cultures have the tradition of burying people with possessions, even riches, pets or people in their household.  Pharaohs in Egypt built massive, elaborate tombs to not have the same of being without in the afterlife.  Vikings were buried with rich possessions. 
3 If anyone teaches a different doctrine and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that accords with godliness,
 4 he is puffed up with conceit and understands nothing. He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, evil suspicions,
 5 and constant friction among people who are depraved in mind and deprived of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain.
 6 But godliness with contentment is great gain,
 7 for we brought nothing into the world, and we cannot take anything out of the world.
 8 But if we have food and clothing, with these we will be content.
 9 But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction.
 10 For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evils. It is through this craving that some have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many pangs.
 11 But as for you, O man of God, flee these things. Pursue righteousness, godliness, faith, love, steadfastness, gentleness.
 (1 Tim. 6:3-11 ESV)

How is Job returning to the womb?  This seems like the question that Nicodemus is asking in John 3 regarding himself. 
Jesus answered him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God."
 4 Nicodemus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born?"
 5 Jesus answered, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.
 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
 7 Do not marvel that I said to you, 'You must be born again.'
 8 The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit." (Jn. 3:3-8 ESV)
Why does Job call him Yahweh?  Job is not an Israelite. 

WTT  בְּכָל־זֹ֖את לֹא־חָטָ֣א אִיּ֑וֹב וְלֹא־נָתַ֥ן תִּפְלָ֖ה לֵאלֹהִֽים׃ פ
 (Job 1:22 WTT)
In all of this Job did not sin and did not give (ascribe) to God folly. 

Notes:  The word folly does not seem to be there in this form in BDB.  If I just looked at BDB it seems to be saying “prayer”, and in that case it is a euphemism for not cursing God.  In that case it is a desire not to write or say the words “curse God”.  When it isתִּפְלָה  as is in the text Holladay sees as “folly”, but Holladay says תְּפִלָּה  is “prayer”.  The transposition of the first and second vowel is the only difference. 


We sometimes suffer for righteousness sake, so therefore receive from the hand of God what he brings.


  • The Lord gives and the Lord takes away, let us bless the Lord. 
    • We sometimes suffer for righteousness sake, so let us bless the Lord.
    • We sometimes suffer or receive blessings as a part of our covenant relationships, so let us bless the Lord.
    • The Lord’s pattern of operation is a cycle of giving and taking, so let us bless the Lord.